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By , a majority of black farmers in the Delta had lost their land and become sharecroppers. By , the third generation after freedom, most African Americans in Mississippi were landless laborers again facing poverty.

They sought jobs, better education for their children, the right to vote, relative freedom from discrimination, and better living. In the migration of —, they left a society that had been steadily closing off opportunity.

Most migrants from Mississippi took trains directly north to Chicago and often settled near former neighbors. Blacks also faced violence in the form of lynching, shooting, and the burning of churches.

In , the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People stated "the Negro feels that life is not safe in Mississippi and his life may be taken with impunity at any time upon the slightest pretext or provocation by a white man".

In the early 20th century, some industries were established in Mississippi, but jobs were generally restricted to whites, including child workers.

The lack of jobs also drove some southern whites north to cities such as Chicago and Detroit, seeking employment, where they also competed with European immigrants.

The state depended on agriculture, but mechanization put many farm laborers out of work. By , many white ministers, especially in the towns, subscribed to the Social Gospel movement, which attempted to apply Christian ethics to social and economic needs of the day.

Many strongly supported Prohibition , believing it would help alleviate and prevent many sins. African-American Baptist churches grew to include more than twice the number of members as their white Baptist counterparts.

The Second Great Migration from the South started in the s, lasting until Almost half a million people left Mississippi in the second migration, three-quarters of them black.

Nationwide during the first half of the 20th century, African Americans became rapidly urbanized and many worked in industrial jobs.

The Second Great Migration included destinations in the West , especially California , where the buildup of the defense industry offered higher paying jobs to both African Americans and whites.

Blacks and whites in Mississippi generated rich, quintessentially American music traditions: All were invented, promulgated or heavily developed by Mississippi musicians, many of them African American, and most came from the Mississippi Delta.

So many African Americans left in the Great Migration that after the s, they became a minority in Mississippi. Court challenges were not successful until later in the century.

After World War II, African-American veterans returned with renewed commitment to be treated as full citizens of the United States and increasingly organized to gain enforcement of their constitutional rights.

The Civil Rights Movement had many roots in religion, and the strong community of churches helped supply volunteers and moral purpose for their activism.

Mississippi was a center of activity, based in black churches, to educate and register black voters, and to work for integration.

White Citizens Councils had been formed in many cities and towns to resist integration of schools following the unanimous United States Supreme Court ruling Brown v.

Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. They used intimidation and economic blackmail against activists and suspected activists, including teachers and other professionals.

Techniques included loss of jobs and eviction from rental housing. In the summer of students and community organizers from across the country came to help register black voters in Mississippi and establish Freedom Schools.

Most white politicians resisted such changes. Chapters of the Ku Klux Klan and its sympathizers used violence against activists, most notably the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner in during the Freedom Summer campaign.

This was a catalyst for Congressional passage the following year of the Voting Rights Act of Mississippi earned a reputation in the s as a reactionary state.

After decades of disenfranchisement, African Americans in the state gradually began to exercise their right to vote again for the first time since the 19th century, following the passage of federal civil rights legislation in and , which ended de jure segregation and enforced constitutional voting rights.

Registration of African-American voters increased and black candidates ran in the elections for state and local offices. The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party fielded some candidates.

He continued as the only African American in the state legislature until and was repeatedly elected into the 21st century, including three terms as Speaker of the House.

In , the state was the last to repeal officially statewide prohibition of alcohol. Before that, Mississippi had taxed the illegal alcohol brought in by bootleggers.

Governor Paul Johnson urged repeal and the sheriff "raided the annual Junior League Mardi Gras ball at the Jackson Country Club, breaking open the liquor cabinet and carting off the Champagne before a startled crowd of nobility and high-ranking state officials".

Mississippi was the last state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , in March , granting women the right to vote.

In , 20 years after the U. Virginia that a similar Virginian law was unconstitutional, Mississippi repealed its ban on interracial marriage also known as miscegenation , which had been enacted in It also repealed the segregationist -era poll tax in In , the state symbolically ratified the Thirteenth Amendment , which had abolished slavery in Though ratified in , the state never officially notified the U.

Republican Governor Haley Barbour signed the bill into law. The end of legal segregation and Jim Crow led to the integration of some churches, but most today remain divided along racial and cultural lines, having developed different traditions.

After the Civil War, most African Americans left white churches to establish their own independent congregations, particularly Baptist churches, establishing state associations and a national association by the end of the century.

They wanted to express their own traditions of worship and practice. The center of population of Mississippi is located in Leake County , in the town of Lena.

From to , the United States Census Bureau reported that Mississippi had the highest rate of increase in people identifying as mixed-race, up 70 percent in the decade; it amounts to a total of 1.

The total population has not increased significantly, but is young. Some of the above change in identification as mixed race is due to new births.

But, it appears mostly to reflect those residents who have chosen to identify as more than one race, who in earlier years may have identified by just one ethnicity.

A binary racial system had been in place since slavery times and the days of racial segregation. In the civil rights era, people of African descent banded together in an inclusive community to achieve political power and gain restoration of their civil rights.

Matthew Snipp , also a demographer, commented on the increase in the 21st century in the number of people identifying as being of more than one race: Some of these slaves were mixed race, with European ancestors, as there were many children born into slavery with white fathers.

Some also have Native American ancestry. They became a minority in the state for the first time since early in its development. The state has had conservative laws related to sexuality.

This law was overturned by Obergefell v. Hodges , the decision of the U. Supreme Court making same-sex marriage a constitutional right.

Despite conservative laws, same-sex couples were forming families in the state. Americans of Scots-Irish , English and Scottish ancestry are present throughout the state.

It is believed that there are more people with such ancestry than identify as such on the census, in part because their immigrant ancestors are more distant in their family histories.

Many Mississippians of such ancestry identify simply as American on questionnaires, because their families have been in North America for centuries.

The state in had the highest proportion of African Americans in the nation. The African-American percentage of population has begun to increase due mainly to a younger population than the whites the total fertility rates of the two races are approximately equal.

African Americans are the majority ethnic group in the northwestern Yazoo Delta , and the southwestern and the central parts of the state.

These are areas where, historically, African Americans owned land as farmers in the 19th century following the Civil War, or worked on cotton plantations and farms.

The African-American; Choctaw , mostly in Neshoba County ; and Chinese-American portions of the population are also almost entirely native born. Chinese came to Mississippi as indentured laborers from Cuba during the s, with others coming from mainland China in the later 19th century.

The majority entering the state immigrated directly from China to Mississippi between and , when they were recruited by planters as laborers.

While most first worked as sharecroppers, the Chinese worked as families to improve their lives. Many became small merchants and especially grocers in small towns throughout the Delta.

These small towns have declined since the late 20th century, and many ethnic Chinese have joined the exodus to larger cities, including Jackson. Their population in the state overall has increased in the 21st century.

In the early s many Vietnamese immigrated to Mississippi and other states along the Gulf of Mexico , where they became employed in fishing-related work.

South Midland terms in northern Mississippi include: Under French and Spanish rule beginning in the 17th century, European colonists were mostly Roman Catholics.

The growth of the cotton culture after brought in tens of thousands of Anglo-American settlers each year, most of whom were Protestants from Southeastern states.

Due to such migration, there was rapid growth in the number of Protestant churches, especially Methodist , Presbyterian and Baptist.

The revivals of the Great Awakening in the late 18th and early 19th centuries initially attracted the "plain folk" by reaching out to all members of society, including women and blacks.

Both slaves and free blacks were welcomed into Methodist and Baptist churches. Independent black Baptist churches were established before in Virginia, Kentucky, South Carolina and Georgia, and later developed in Mississippi as well.

In the post-Civil War years, religion became more influential as the South became known as the " Bible Belt ". As of Mississippi remained a stronghold of the denomination, which originally was brought by Scots immigrants.

The state has the highest adherence rate of the PCA in , with congregations and 18, members. The United States census counted 6, same-sex unmarried-partner households in Mississippi, an increase of 1, since the United States census.

The state capital, Jackson, ranks tenth in the nation in concentration of African-American same-sex couples.

The state ranks fifth in the nation in the percentage of Hispanic same-sex couples among all Hispanic households and ninth in the highest concentration of same-sex couples who are seniors.

The state is ranked 50th or last place among all the states for health care, according to the Commonwealth Fund , a nonprofit foundation working to advance performance of the health care system.

Mississippi has the highest rate of infant and neonatal deaths of any U. Age-adjusted data also shows Mississippi has the highest overall death rate, and the highest death rate from heart disease, hypertension and hypertensive renal disease, influenza and pneumonia.

In , Mississippi and Arkansas had the fewest dentists in the United States. In a study, Mississippi had the highest rate of obesity of any U.

The study stressed that "obesity starts in early childhood extending into the adolescent years and then possibly into adulthood.

Previous intervention strategies may have been largely ineffective due to not being culturally sensitive or practical.

At 56 percent, the state has one of the lowest workforce participation rates in the country. Approximately 70, adults are disabled which is 10 percent of the workforce.

Before the Civil War, Mississippi was the fifth-wealthiest state in the nation, its wealth generated by the labor of slaves in cotton plantations along the rivers.

By , a majority — 55 percent — of the population of Mississippi was enslaved. They educated their children privately. Industrialization did not reach many areas until the late 20th century.

The planter aristocracy , the elite of antebellum Mississippi, kept the tax structure low for their own benefit, making only private improvements.

Before the war the most successful planters, such as Confederate President Jefferson Davis , owned riverside properties along the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers in the Mississippi Delta.

Away from the riverfronts, most of the Delta was undeveloped frontier. During the Civil War, 30, Mississippi soldiers, mostly white, died from wounds and disease, and many more were left crippled and wounded.

Changes to the labor structure and an agricultural depression throughout the South caused severe losses in wealth. Poor whites and landless former slaves suffered the most from the postwar economic depression.

The constitutional convention of early appointed a committee to recommend what was needed for relief of the state and its citizens.

The committee found severe destitution among the laboring classes. The upset of the commodity system impoverished the state after the war.

By an increased cotton crop began to show possibilities for free labor in the state, but the crop of , bales produced in was still less than half of prewar figures.

Blacks cleared land, selling timber and developing bottomland to achieve ownership. In , two-thirds of farm owners in Mississippi were blacks, a major achievement for them and their families.

Due to the poor economy, low cotton prices and difficulty of getting credit, many of these farmers could not make it through the extended financial difficulties.

Two decades later, the majority of African Americans were sharecroppers. The low prices of cotton into the s meant that more than a generation of African Americans lost the result of their labor when they had to sell their farms to pay off accumulated debts.

After the Civil War, the state refused for years to build human capital by fully educating all its citizens. In addition, the reliance on agriculture grew increasingly costly as the state suffered loss of cotton crops due to the devastation of the boll weevil in the early 20th century, devastating floods in — and , collapse of cotton prices after , and drought in It was not until , after the flood of , that the state created the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta District Levee Board and started successfully achieving longer term plans for levees in the upper Delta.

With the Depression coming so soon after the flood, the state suffered badly during those years. In the Great Migration , hundreds of thousands of African Americans migrated North and West for jobs and chances to live as full citizens.

Gambling towns in Mississippi have attracted increased tourism: The only exception is in Harrison County , where the new law states that casinos can be built to the southern boundary of U.

Momentum Mississippi , a statewide, public—private partnership dedicated to the development of economic and employment opportunities in Mississippi, was adopted in Mississippi, like the rest of its southern neighbors, is a right-to-work state.

The latter produces the Nissan Titan. Tupelo levies a local sales tax of 2. On August 30, , a report by the United States Census Bureau indicated that Mississippi was the poorest state in the country.

Major cotton farmers in the Delta have large, mechanized plantations, and they receive the majority of extensive federal subsidies going to the state, yet many other residents still live as poor, rural, landless laborers.

There has been little money apportioned for rural development. Small towns are struggling. More than , people have left the region in search of work elsewhere.

However, from to , it was at least number four in the nation for federal spending vs. A proportion of federal spending in Mississippi is directed toward large federal installations such as Camp Shelby , John C.

Three of these installations are located in the area affected by Hurricane Katrina. As with all other U. Executive authority in the state rests with the Governor, currently Phil Bryant R.

Both the governor and lieutenant governor are elected to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U. States, most of the heads of major executive departments are elected by the citizens of Mississippi rather than appointed by the governor.

Mississippi is one of five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years the others are Kentucky , Louisiana , New Jersey and Virginia.

Mississippi holds elections for these offices every four years, always in the year preceding Presidential elections.

In , Mississippi voters approved a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and prohibiting Mississippi from recognizing same-sex marriages performed elsewhere.

Mississippi is one of 31 states which have capital punishment as a legal sentence see Capital punishment in Mississippi. Section of the Constitution of the State of Mississippi declares that "No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state.

Supreme Court in Torcaso v. Mississippi led the South in developing a disfranchising constitution, passing it in By raising barriers to voter registration, the state legislature disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, excluding them from politics until the late s.

It established a one-party state dominated by white Democrats. In the s whites divided evenly between the parties.

In the s those voters shifted their allegiance to the Republican Party , first for national and then for state offices. Mississippi is served by nine interstate highways:.

For more information, visit the Mississippi Department of Transportation website. Amtrak provides scheduled passenger service along two routes, the Crescent and City of New Orleans.

Prior to severe damage from Hurricane Katrina , the Sunset Limited traversed the far south of the state; the route originated in Los Angeles, California and it terminated in Florida.

Until the Civil War era, Mississippi had a small number of schools and no educational institutions for African Americans. The first school for black students was not established until During Reconstruction in , black and white Republicans drafted a constitution that was the first to provide for a system of free public education in the state.

In the early 20th century, there were still few schools in rural areas, particularly for black children. With seed money from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, many rural black communities across Mississippi raised matching funds and contributed public funds to build new schools for their children.

Blacks and whites attended segregated and separate public schools in Mississippi until the late s, although such segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in its ruling in Brown v.

Often funding declined for the public schools. But in the state as a whole, only a small minority of white children were withdrawn from public schools.

State officials believed they needed to maintain public education to attract new businesses. After several years of integration, whites often dominated local systems anyway, maintaining white supremacy.

Many black parents complained that they had little representation in school administration, and that many of their former administrators and teachers had been pushed out.

They have had to work to have their interests and children represented. In the late s, the state had public elementary and secondary schools , with a total yearly enrollment of about , elementary pupils and about , secondary students.

Some 45, students attended private schools. In contrast, Mississippi had the 17th-highest average SAT scores in the nation. Although unusual in the West, school corporal punishment is common in Mississippi, with 31, public school students [] paddled at least one time.

In , Mississippi students scored the lowest of any state on the National Assessments of Educational Progress in both math and science.

The Mississippi School for the Deaf was established by the state legislature in before the civil war. Professional services specialists for support throughout your digital transformation.

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The deep time in your fairy tale does not exist. Only one line of evidence suffices to destroy a claim, working hypothesis and theory.

In West Texas, an oil boom is creating a major problem for producers and locals alike: Not only does the flaring cost the industry money, but the release of gases damages the climate and could be toxic to those living near the fracking rigs.

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An investigation will reveal what happened. Who is Mike Pompeo? Secretary of State NowThis. Additive manufacturing promises enormous geometrical freedom and the potential to combine materials for complex functions.

The speed, geometry, and surface quality limitations of additive processes are linked to the reliance on material layering. We demonstrated concurrent printing of all points within a three-dimensional object by illuminating a rotating volume of photosensitive material with a dynamically evolving light pattern.

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Commenting is disabled for this post. This is the first time Jussie Smollett has spoken out about the early Tuesday attack.

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But did you know that you could still be undermining all your efforts with some surprisingly common bad habits? The chemicals in tobacco smoke harm your blood cells.

They also can damage the function of your heart and the structure and function of your blood vessels. I know of several people who died of lung cancer, and they all without exception smoked at least 60 cigarettes a day.

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You were not there to see and document anything so you have no experiential science about the myths you are pushing on the public.

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Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer such as distribution channels, market coverage and movement organization.

The last P stands for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to buy the product.

Communications can include advertising, sales promotion , public relations , publicity , personal selling , corporate identity , internal communication , SNS , and MIS.

Advertising research is a specialized form of research that works to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising.

It entails numerous forms of research which employ different methodologies. Pre-testing includes a wide range of qualitative and quantitative techniques, including: The goal of these investigations is to better understand how different groups respond to various messages and visual prompts, thereby providing an assessment of how well the advertisement meets its communications goals.

Post-testing employs many of the same techniques as pre-testing, usually with a focus on understanding the change in awareness or attitude attributable to the advertisement.

With the emergence of digital advertising technologies, many firms have begun to continuously post-test ads using real-time data. Continuous ad tracking and the Communicus System are competing examples of post-testing advertising research types.

Meanings between consumers and marketers depict signs and symbols that are encoded in everyday objects. Advertising has many hidden signs and meanings within brand names , logos , package designs, print advertisements, and television advertisements.

Semiotics aims to study and interpret the message being conveyed in for example advertisements. Logos and advertisements can be interpreted at two levels — known as the surface level and the underlying level.

The surface level uses signs creatively to create an image or personality for a product. The underlying level is made up of hidden meanings.

The combination of images, words, colors , and slogans must be interpreted by the audience or consumer. The signifier is the object and the signified is the mental concept.

The signifier is the color, brand name, logo design, and technology. The signified has two meanings known as denotative and connotative.

The denotative meaning is the meaning of the product. A connotative meaning of a television would be that it is top-of-the-line. They placed the silhouette in front of a blue screen so that the picture behind the silhouette could be constantly changing.

However, the one thing that stays the same in these ads is that there is music in the background and the silhouette is listening to that music on a white iPod through white headphones.

Through advertising, the white color on a set of earphones now signifies that the music device is an iPod. The semiotics of gender plays a key influence on the way in which signs are interpreted.

When considering gender roles in advertising , individuals are influenced by three categories. Certain characteristics of stimuli may enhance or decrease the elaboration of the message if the product is perceived as feminine or masculine.

Second, the characteristics of individuals can affect attention and elaboration of the message traditional or non-traditional gender role orientation.

Lastly, situational factors may be important to influence the elaboration of the message. There are two types of marketing communication claims-objective and subjective.

For instance, a camera may have auto-focus features. Subjective claims convey emotional, subjective, impressions of intangible aspects of a product or service.

They are non-physical features of a product or service that cannot be directly perceived, as they have no physical reality.

For instance the brochure has a beautiful design. Voiceovers are commonly used in advertising. According to a study by David Statt, females process information comprehensively, while males process information through heuristic devices such as procedures, methods or strategies for solving problems , which could have an effect on how they interpret advertising.

Later research by a Danish team [] found that advertising attempts to persuade men to improve their appearance or performance, whereas its approach to women aims at transformation toward an impossible ideal of female presentation.

Studies show that these expectations of women and young girls negatively impact their views about their bodies and appearances. These advertisements are directed towards men.

More recent research by Martin reveals that males and females differ in how they react to advertising depending on their mood at the time of exposure to the ads, and on the affective tone of the advertising.

When feeling sad, males prefer happy ads to boost their mood. In contrast, females prefer happy ads when they are feeling happy.

Little girls grow up watching advertisements of scantily clad women advertising things from trucks to burgers, and Wojcicki states that this shows girls that they are either arm candy or eye candy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 January For advertising in Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia: For proposal on advertising about Wikipedia, see Wikipedia: For the English punk band, see The Adverts.

For other uses, see AD disambiguation and Advertiser disambiguation. Behavioral targeting Brand ambassador Broadcasting Display advertising Drip marketing In-game advertising Mobile advertising Native advertising New media Online advertising Out-of-home advertising Point of sale Printing Product demonstration Promotional merchandise Publication Visual merchandising Web banner Word-of-mouth.

Soft power and International tourism advertising. Racial stereotyping in advertising. Business and economics portal Media portal.

Advertisements in schools Advertising campaign Advertising in biology Advertising management Advertorial Bibliography of advertising Branded content Co-marketing Commercial speech Comparative advertising Conquesting Copywriting Demo mode Direct-to-consumer advertising Family in advertising Graphic design History of advertising History of advertising in Britain History of Advertising Trust Informative advertising Integrated marketing communications Local advertising Mad men Marketing communications Market overhang Marketing mix Media planning Meta-advertising Mobile marketing Museum of Brands, Packaging and Advertising Performance-based advertising Promotion Promotional mix Senior media creative Sex in advertising Shock advertising Television advertisement Tobacco advertising Trade literature Video commerce Viral marketing World Federation of Advertisers.

Contemporary Advertising, Fourth Edition. Studlar Tobacco Control: The man who is sometimes considered the founder of modern advertising and Madison Avenue, Edward Bernays, created many of the major cigarette campaigns of the s, including having women march down the street demanding the right to smoke.

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The new psychology and the business of advertising. A History of the Profession of Psychology in America. Visions and lessons from integrated marketing communications".

Journal of Business Research. Fortune mailed print edition: Advertising Expenditure Since ". Archived from the original on April 1, Retrieved April 20, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences.

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Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved April 30, Archived from the original on April 26, Archived from the original on June 6, A total of three white Republicans and five white Democrats were reported killed.

In rural areas, deaths of blacks could be covered up. Riots better described as massacres of blacks took place in Vicksburg, Clinton, Macon, and in their counties, as well-armed whites broke up black meetings and lynched known black leaders, destroying local political organizations.

In by a national compromise, the last of federal troops were withdrawn from the region. Even in this environment, black Mississippians continued to be elected to local office.

Estimates are that , black and 50, white men were removed from voter registration rolls in the state over the next few years. The loss of political influence contributed to the difficulties of African Americans in their attempts to obtain extended credit in the late 19th century.

Together with imposition of Jim Crow and racial segregation laws, whites increased violence against blacks, lynching mostly men, through the period of the s and extending to Cotton crops failed due to boll weevil infestation and successive severe flooding in and , creating crisis conditions for many African Americans.

With control of the ballot box and more access to credit, white planters bought out such farmers, expanding their ownership of Delta bottomlands.

They also took advantage of new railroads sponsored by the state. By , a majority of black farmers in the Delta had lost their land and become sharecroppers.

By , the third generation after freedom, most African Americans in Mississippi were landless laborers again facing poverty. They sought jobs, better education for their children, the right to vote, relative freedom from discrimination, and better living.

In the migration of —, they left a society that had been steadily closing off opportunity. Most migrants from Mississippi took trains directly north to Chicago and often settled near former neighbors.

Blacks also faced violence in the form of lynching, shooting, and the burning of churches. In , the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People stated "the Negro feels that life is not safe in Mississippi and his life may be taken with impunity at any time upon the slightest pretext or provocation by a white man".

In the early 20th century, some industries were established in Mississippi, but jobs were generally restricted to whites, including child workers.

The lack of jobs also drove some southern whites north to cities such as Chicago and Detroit, seeking employment, where they also competed with European immigrants.

The state depended on agriculture, but mechanization put many farm laborers out of work. By , many white ministers, especially in the towns, subscribed to the Social Gospel movement, which attempted to apply Christian ethics to social and economic needs of the day.

Many strongly supported Prohibition , believing it would help alleviate and prevent many sins. African-American Baptist churches grew to include more than twice the number of members as their white Baptist counterparts.

The Second Great Migration from the South started in the s, lasting until Almost half a million people left Mississippi in the second migration, three-quarters of them black.

Nationwide during the first half of the 20th century, African Americans became rapidly urbanized and many worked in industrial jobs. The Second Great Migration included destinations in the West , especially California , where the buildup of the defense industry offered higher paying jobs to both African Americans and whites.

Blacks and whites in Mississippi generated rich, quintessentially American music traditions: All were invented, promulgated or heavily developed by Mississippi musicians, many of them African American, and most came from the Mississippi Delta.

So many African Americans left in the Great Migration that after the s, they became a minority in Mississippi. Court challenges were not successful until later in the century.

After World War II, African-American veterans returned with renewed commitment to be treated as full citizens of the United States and increasingly organized to gain enforcement of their constitutional rights.

The Civil Rights Movement had many roots in religion, and the strong community of churches helped supply volunteers and moral purpose for their activism.

Mississippi was a center of activity, based in black churches, to educate and register black voters, and to work for integration.

White Citizens Councils had been formed in many cities and towns to resist integration of schools following the unanimous United States Supreme Court ruling Brown v.

Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. They used intimidation and economic blackmail against activists and suspected activists, including teachers and other professionals.

Techniques included loss of jobs and eviction from rental housing. In the summer of students and community organizers from across the country came to help register black voters in Mississippi and establish Freedom Schools.

Most white politicians resisted such changes. Chapters of the Ku Klux Klan and its sympathizers used violence against activists, most notably the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner in during the Freedom Summer campaign.

This was a catalyst for Congressional passage the following year of the Voting Rights Act of Mississippi earned a reputation in the s as a reactionary state.

After decades of disenfranchisement, African Americans in the state gradually began to exercise their right to vote again for the first time since the 19th century, following the passage of federal civil rights legislation in and , which ended de jure segregation and enforced constitutional voting rights.

Registration of African-American voters increased and black candidates ran in the elections for state and local offices. The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party fielded some candidates.

He continued as the only African American in the state legislature until and was repeatedly elected into the 21st century, including three terms as Speaker of the House.

In , the state was the last to repeal officially statewide prohibition of alcohol. Before that, Mississippi had taxed the illegal alcohol brought in by bootleggers.

Governor Paul Johnson urged repeal and the sheriff "raided the annual Junior League Mardi Gras ball at the Jackson Country Club, breaking open the liquor cabinet and carting off the Champagne before a startled crowd of nobility and high-ranking state officials".

Mississippi was the last state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , in March , granting women the right to vote.

In , 20 years after the U. Virginia that a similar Virginian law was unconstitutional, Mississippi repealed its ban on interracial marriage also known as miscegenation , which had been enacted in It also repealed the segregationist -era poll tax in In , the state symbolically ratified the Thirteenth Amendment , which had abolished slavery in Though ratified in , the state never officially notified the U.

Republican Governor Haley Barbour signed the bill into law. The end of legal segregation and Jim Crow led to the integration of some churches, but most today remain divided along racial and cultural lines, having developed different traditions.

After the Civil War, most African Americans left white churches to establish their own independent congregations, particularly Baptist churches, establishing state associations and a national association by the end of the century.

They wanted to express their own traditions of worship and practice. The center of population of Mississippi is located in Leake County , in the town of Lena.

From to , the United States Census Bureau reported that Mississippi had the highest rate of increase in people identifying as mixed-race, up 70 percent in the decade; it amounts to a total of 1.

The total population has not increased significantly, but is young. Some of the above change in identification as mixed race is due to new births.

But, it appears mostly to reflect those residents who have chosen to identify as more than one race, who in earlier years may have identified by just one ethnicity.

A binary racial system had been in place since slavery times and the days of racial segregation. In the civil rights era, people of African descent banded together in an inclusive community to achieve political power and gain restoration of their civil rights.

Matthew Snipp , also a demographer, commented on the increase in the 21st century in the number of people identifying as being of more than one race: Some of these slaves were mixed race, with European ancestors, as there were many children born into slavery with white fathers.

Some also have Native American ancestry. They became a minority in the state for the first time since early in its development.

The state has had conservative laws related to sexuality. This law was overturned by Obergefell v. Hodges , the decision of the U.

Supreme Court making same-sex marriage a constitutional right. Despite conservative laws, same-sex couples were forming families in the state.

Americans of Scots-Irish , English and Scottish ancestry are present throughout the state. It is believed that there are more people with such ancestry than identify as such on the census, in part because their immigrant ancestors are more distant in their family histories.

Many Mississippians of such ancestry identify simply as American on questionnaires, because their families have been in North America for centuries.

The state in had the highest proportion of African Americans in the nation. The African-American percentage of population has begun to increase due mainly to a younger population than the whites the total fertility rates of the two races are approximately equal.

African Americans are the majority ethnic group in the northwestern Yazoo Delta , and the southwestern and the central parts of the state.

These are areas where, historically, African Americans owned land as farmers in the 19th century following the Civil War, or worked on cotton plantations and farms.

The African-American; Choctaw , mostly in Neshoba County ; and Chinese-American portions of the population are also almost entirely native born.

Chinese came to Mississippi as indentured laborers from Cuba during the s, with others coming from mainland China in the later 19th century.

The majority entering the state immigrated directly from China to Mississippi between and , when they were recruited by planters as laborers.

While most first worked as sharecroppers, the Chinese worked as families to improve their lives. Many became small merchants and especially grocers in small towns throughout the Delta.

These small towns have declined since the late 20th century, and many ethnic Chinese have joined the exodus to larger cities, including Jackson. Their population in the state overall has increased in the 21st century.

In the early s many Vietnamese immigrated to Mississippi and other states along the Gulf of Mexico , where they became employed in fishing-related work.

South Midland terms in northern Mississippi include: Under French and Spanish rule beginning in the 17th century, European colonists were mostly Roman Catholics.

The growth of the cotton culture after brought in tens of thousands of Anglo-American settlers each year, most of whom were Protestants from Southeastern states.

Due to such migration, there was rapid growth in the number of Protestant churches, especially Methodist , Presbyterian and Baptist.

The revivals of the Great Awakening in the late 18th and early 19th centuries initially attracted the "plain folk" by reaching out to all members of society, including women and blacks.

Both slaves and free blacks were welcomed into Methodist and Baptist churches. Independent black Baptist churches were established before in Virginia, Kentucky, South Carolina and Georgia, and later developed in Mississippi as well.

In the post-Civil War years, religion became more influential as the South became known as the " Bible Belt ". As of Mississippi remained a stronghold of the denomination, which originally was brought by Scots immigrants.

The state has the highest adherence rate of the PCA in , with congregations and 18, members. The United States census counted 6, same-sex unmarried-partner households in Mississippi, an increase of 1, since the United States census.

The state capital, Jackson, ranks tenth in the nation in concentration of African-American same-sex couples. The state ranks fifth in the nation in the percentage of Hispanic same-sex couples among all Hispanic households and ninth in the highest concentration of same-sex couples who are seniors.

The state is ranked 50th or last place among all the states for health care, according to the Commonwealth Fund , a nonprofit foundation working to advance performance of the health care system.

Mississippi has the highest rate of infant and neonatal deaths of any U. Age-adjusted data also shows Mississippi has the highest overall death rate, and the highest death rate from heart disease, hypertension and hypertensive renal disease, influenza and pneumonia.

In , Mississippi and Arkansas had the fewest dentists in the United States. In a study, Mississippi had the highest rate of obesity of any U.

The study stressed that "obesity starts in early childhood extending into the adolescent years and then possibly into adulthood. Previous intervention strategies may have been largely ineffective due to not being culturally sensitive or practical.

At 56 percent, the state has one of the lowest workforce participation rates in the country. Approximately 70, adults are disabled which is 10 percent of the workforce.

Before the Civil War, Mississippi was the fifth-wealthiest state in the nation, its wealth generated by the labor of slaves in cotton plantations along the rivers.

By , a majority — 55 percent — of the population of Mississippi was enslaved. They educated their children privately. Industrialization did not reach many areas until the late 20th century.

The planter aristocracy , the elite of antebellum Mississippi, kept the tax structure low for their own benefit, making only private improvements.

Before the war the most successful planters, such as Confederate President Jefferson Davis , owned riverside properties along the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers in the Mississippi Delta.

Away from the riverfronts, most of the Delta was undeveloped frontier. During the Civil War, 30, Mississippi soldiers, mostly white, died from wounds and disease, and many more were left crippled and wounded.

Changes to the labor structure and an agricultural depression throughout the South caused severe losses in wealth. Poor whites and landless former slaves suffered the most from the postwar economic depression.

The constitutional convention of early appointed a committee to recommend what was needed for relief of the state and its citizens.

The committee found severe destitution among the laboring classes. The upset of the commodity system impoverished the state after the war. By an increased cotton crop began to show possibilities for free labor in the state, but the crop of , bales produced in was still less than half of prewar figures.

Blacks cleared land, selling timber and developing bottomland to achieve ownership. In , two-thirds of farm owners in Mississippi were blacks, a major achievement for them and their families.

Due to the poor economy, low cotton prices and difficulty of getting credit, many of these farmers could not make it through the extended financial difficulties.

Two decades later, the majority of African Americans were sharecroppers. The low prices of cotton into the s meant that more than a generation of African Americans lost the result of their labor when they had to sell their farms to pay off accumulated debts.

After the Civil War, the state refused for years to build human capital by fully educating all its citizens. In addition, the reliance on agriculture grew increasingly costly as the state suffered loss of cotton crops due to the devastation of the boll weevil in the early 20th century, devastating floods in — and , collapse of cotton prices after , and drought in It was not until , after the flood of , that the state created the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta District Levee Board and started successfully achieving longer term plans for levees in the upper Delta.

With the Depression coming so soon after the flood, the state suffered badly during those years. In the Great Migration , hundreds of thousands of African Americans migrated North and West for jobs and chances to live as full citizens.

Gambling towns in Mississippi have attracted increased tourism: The only exception is in Harrison County , where the new law states that casinos can be built to the southern boundary of U.

Momentum Mississippi , a statewide, public—private partnership dedicated to the development of economic and employment opportunities in Mississippi, was adopted in Mississippi, like the rest of its southern neighbors, is a right-to-work state.

The latter produces the Nissan Titan. Tupelo levies a local sales tax of 2. On August 30, , a report by the United States Census Bureau indicated that Mississippi was the poorest state in the country.

Major cotton farmers in the Delta have large, mechanized plantations, and they receive the majority of extensive federal subsidies going to the state, yet many other residents still live as poor, rural, landless laborers.

There has been little money apportioned for rural development. Small towns are struggling. More than , people have left the region in search of work elsewhere.

However, from to , it was at least number four in the nation for federal spending vs. A proportion of federal spending in Mississippi is directed toward large federal installations such as Camp Shelby , John C.

Three of these installations are located in the area affected by Hurricane Katrina. As with all other U. Executive authority in the state rests with the Governor, currently Phil Bryant R.

Both the governor and lieutenant governor are elected to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.

States, most of the heads of major executive departments are elected by the citizens of Mississippi rather than appointed by the governor.

Mississippi is one of five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years the others are Kentucky , Louisiana , New Jersey and Virginia.

Mississippi holds elections for these offices every four years, always in the year preceding Presidential elections.

In , Mississippi voters approved a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and prohibiting Mississippi from recognizing same-sex marriages performed elsewhere.

Mississippi is one of 31 states which have capital punishment as a legal sentence see Capital punishment in Mississippi.

Section of the Constitution of the State of Mississippi declares that "No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state.

Supreme Court in Torcaso v. Mississippi led the South in developing a disfranchising constitution, passing it in By raising barriers to voter registration, the state legislature disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, excluding them from politics until the late s.

It established a one-party state dominated by white Democrats. In the s whites divided evenly between the parties.

In the s those voters shifted their allegiance to the Republican Party , first for national and then for state offices. Mississippi is served by nine interstate highways:.

For more information, visit the Mississippi Department of Transportation website. Amtrak provides scheduled passenger service along two routes, the Crescent and City of New Orleans.

Prior to severe damage from Hurricane Katrina , the Sunset Limited traversed the far south of the state; the route originated in Los Angeles, California and it terminated in Florida.

Until the Civil War era, Mississippi had a small number of schools and no educational institutions for African Americans. The first school for black students was not established until During Reconstruction in , black and white Republicans drafted a constitution that was the first to provide for a system of free public education in the state.

In the early 20th century, there were still few schools in rural areas, particularly for black children. With seed money from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, many rural black communities across Mississippi raised matching funds and contributed public funds to build new schools for their children.

Blacks and whites attended segregated and separate public schools in Mississippi until the late s, although such segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in its ruling in Brown v.

Often funding declined for the public schools.

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